Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

Things to Look for When Choosing a Motorcycle Repair School

A passion for motorcycles is a basic requirement for being a successful motorcycle mechanic. In fact, most motorcycle mechanics started their career simply as a hobby. They were motorcycle lovers who were toying with their bikes to make them run more smoothly until they realized that they could earn money doing something they enjoy. Some of them work in repair shops equipped with their own personal experience in motorcycle repair while others further their knowledge and skills by enrolling in a motorcycle repair school. Being a motorcycle mechanic is meticulous work and it can be tough knowing that a rider’s life depends very much on one’s skills.

When equipment breaks down, a mechanic is responsible for diagnosing the source, nature, and extent of the problem. A highly skilled mechanic is able to diagnose mechanical, electrical, and fuel problems and to troubleshoot quickly. To be able to quickly and accurately diagnose problems is a mark of an expert mechanic and this is also an exhibition of their great problem solving ability, as well as their comprehensive knowledge on how the equipment operates.

A mechanic’s job also includes minor tuning or replacement of a single part of the motorcycle. They may also be asked to perform complete engine overhaul, although this job could take many hours as they need to take down the engine and replace defective valves, bearings pistons, and other interior parts. Those who are highly skilled utilize specialized machineries and the most advanced computerized equipment to adjust and tune motorcycles, especially those that are used for racing.

To qualify for a trainee mechanic position, some employers prefer applicants with a high school diploma or the equivalent, but there are also some who accept those with less education as long as they exhibit satisfactory reading, writing, and math abilities. However, due to the growing complexity of motorcycles, those with a diploma or a certificate from a formal training program in motorcycle repair have more employment opportunities. This is why enrolling in a trade school or institute to be a certified motorcycle mechanic could be a wise decision.

Would-be motorcycle technicians can either opt for a technician diploma or an associate degree in applied science or mechanics. By attending a trade school, a student will receive the needed job training and basic credentials to be a motorcycle mechanic. After completing this program, he will be certified as a trained technician in this field.

Meanwhile, the associate degree is designed for mechanics to earn the educational qualifications that match the needs of their profession. The program can be completed within one or two years. Courses taught in an associate degree include math, basic management, human relations, infrastructure and resources, and hands-on experiences such as disassembling, assembling and overhauling of motorcycle equipment. Online courses are available for those who can’t manage to attend an on-campus program.

Because there are many schools that offer motorcycle repair classes, it is important that prospective students choose a school that can develop their full potential and ensure their success in the field. There are many qualities that mark a good training facility.

First and foremost, a good motorcycle repair school should provide their students plenty of hands-on training. When students use their own hands repairing motorcycles, they learn a lot easier. Next to hands-on training, students should also ensure that the motorcycle school offers the most advanced repair classes. It is essential that students get trained on fixing modern motorcycle engines.

Essential core classes should include motorcycle suspension systems, four stroke engines, two stroke engines, brake systems, motorcycle electrical systems, fundamentals of electricity, and motorcycle fuel systems. The school should also have highly qualified instructors. The best motorcycle repair instructors are those with many years of experience in the field. Students should ensure that they attend a motorcycle school with excellent instructors.

Finally, a motorcycle repair school should provide help to their graduates to get a job in the field. This will ensure students that they will not only be trained properly, but that they will also have a good start in their career.

An Overview Of The Benefits Of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

The acronym for Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation is TENS. This is a pain relief method that involves a device that transmits electrical impulses via electrodes on the skin to a specific area of ​​the body that is painful. It is useful for the relief of acute and chronic pain. Electric stimulation for pain management goes back to the Ancient Greeks and, more recently, Benjamin Franklin was a great proponent of the concept. However, the first patented modern machine made its debut during 1974 in the USA.

TENS has proved to be effective for many types of pain. It is commonly used during childbirth, after surgery, for bursitis, tension headaches, tendonitis, cancer, chronic wounds, arthritis, migraine headaches, injuries, and other painful conditions. Medical practitioners believe that the technique stimulates the body to produce endorphins which are natural painkillers. However, they do not claim that this therapy addresses the root cause of pain. Its primary use is to offer short-term relief while healing is occurring.

A TENS device enterprises of an electric unit that is connected to electrodes. These are attached to the skin near the targeted area. When the device is switched on, a low-voltage current is delivered into the body. During therapy, the patient will feel a warm, tingling sensation.

A session usually lasts between 5 and 15 minutes. Treatment may take place as often as necessary according to the severity of the pain. TENS can best be described as an electrical massage. It is widely used by physiotherapists, massage therapists, and chiropractors. Portable systems are available so that patients can apply the therapy at home.

In the USA, there are over 100 different types of portable TENS machines which have received approval from the Food and Drug Administration. However, the public may not use them unless authorized by a medical practitioner. Some units deliver the electrical impulses via acupuncture needles. This method has to be performed by a qualified health care practitioner.

Research indicates that TENS therapy has shown some efficiencies with cancer patients, especially those who have neuropathic pain which is related to nerve or tissue damage. In such cases, TENS works best when combined with medication. It has shown to be particularly helpful to relieve painful bones and muscles after major surgical procedures.

Patients who are allergic to adhesives may react adversely to the electrode pads. This therapy is not suitable for patients who have heart problems. Also, it should not be administrated to people with implanted defibrillators, pacemakers, infusion pumps, or any other internal device that may malfunction due to the electrical current. If a woman suspects she may be pregnant, she should advise the practitioner because the effects on an unborn fetus are not yet known.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation is otherwise considered to be safe. Anyone applying the treatment at home should take care that the current is not too intense because it may irritate or burn the skin. Never place the electrodes near the throat, brain, heart, or over the eyes. Always ensure that you know how to operate the device correctly and that you have received instruction from a professional practitioner.

Affordable Web Hosting

These days, with the web hosting market becoming increasingly competitive, it is not hard to find affordable hosting. A simple web search using your favorite search engine will bring up all types of affordable web hosting options.

It is important to do your research before paying for any of these web hosts, however. Companies exist that can offer affordable web hosting to anyone, but they all offer different plans with different capabilities. It does not do you any good to sign up for an affordable hosting plan if it does not give you everything your website is going to need.

The prices for shared server hosting range from about $ 2 to $ 10 / month these days. Most of the affordable web hosting plans in the lower end of that price bracket is perfect for someone who just wants to host a personal website or blog. However, if you are looking for unlimited bandwidth or want to be able to use a specific software package or coding method you might have to pay a couple dollars extra. It is better to stay with the software and coding that you are comfortable with and pay a bit of extra money than it is to try and learn a new method just so you can get a slightly more affordable web hosting plan.

To make an already affordable web hosting plan cost you even less, you can look for coupon codes. Many hosting companies will have a referral program of some sort. Usually these programs work by allowing their customers to create and distribute coupon codes. The new member gets a discount when they use the code, creating a more affordable hosting plan for them. The person who gave them the code usually gets a discount of some sort as well – it may be money credited to their account, or a free month of hosting, or a free upgrade on their current plan.

You can find these coupon codes by simply searching "web hosting coupons" or "[your chosen host] coupons". Just make sure you read the fine print before using any of these codes. The main thing you want to find out is if they are expired or not. Some people will post these codes on their websites and then forget they exist – so when they expire, they never get taken down. You also want to find out if this code will cause your plan to be more affordable indefinitely or if it only applies to the first year of your hosting.

The best web hosting plan for your website might not be the most affordable web hosting plan. A coupon code might be just what you need to make it affordable – but it does you no good if it only makes it affordable for the first year of your hosting. Especially if you need to sign up for more than a year in order to use the coupon (which is often the case). Just make sure that you fully understand what exactly you are agreeing to.